A Symposium on Respiratory Viral Infections

A Symposium on Respiratory Viral Infections Photo
Respiratory diseases today are a major global health problem. In the world, the influenza and acute respiratory viral infections(ARVI)cause the main economic damage in the structure of infectious respiratory diseases.Respiratory viruses are the cause of a large burden of disease in humans and although effective vaccines exist to protect against seasonal influenza,no vaccines are currently available for other important human respiratory viral diseases such as avian influenza, pandemic influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection.Respiratory infections represent a leading disease burden in developing countries and emerging markets. The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) diagnostics market size was valued at USD 567.1 million in 2014 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 9.6% over the next seven years.

North America dominated the Respiratory Syncytial Virus diagnostics market in 2014 with over 40.0% share. Increasing incidences of respiratory infections and supportive initiatives by government and healthcare agencies such as Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) to mandate screening of newborns for crucial infections and metabolic disorders are anticipated to propel the RSV diagnostics market within the region.According to the CDC, rising volume of hospitalization due to RSV infection that may lead to mortality is being observed within American regions, thereby propelling the need for early diagnosis.Asia Pacific is anticipated to witness the fastest growth for the Respiratory Syncytial Virus diagnostic industry over the forecast period. Owing to the moderate standards of living, prevalence of infectious diseases is comparatively high in the countries of this continent, which demands for better diagnostic and treatment options.The key players of the Respiratory Syncytial Virus diagnostics market include Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, Roche Diagnostics, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Abbott Laboratories, Becton Dickinson and Company, EMD Millipore, Coris BioConcept, Quest Diagnostics, Alere Inc., and others.

On the basis of geography, global parainfluenza virus diagnostic testing market is segmented into five key regions viz. North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. North America is projected to hold largest shares in the global market primarily due to growing incidence of parainfluenza virus and innovations in diagnostic techniques. Asia pacific human parainfluenza virus diagnostics testing market is anticipated to witness prominent growth during the forecast period owing to increased healthcare expenditure and repeated outbreaks of infectious diseases in developing countries such as India and China.

The vast majority of URIs have a viral etiology. Rhinoviruses account for 25 to 30 percent of URIs; respiratory syncytial viruses (RSVs), parainfluenza and influenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, and adenoviruses for 25 to 35 percent; corona viruses for 10 percent. Currently, the most common causes of viral LRIs are RSVs. Both bacteria and viruses can cause pneumonia.The burden of LRIs caused by Hib or S. pneumoniae is difficult to determine because current techniques to establish bacterial etiology lack sensitivity and specificity.Measles virus, RSVs, parainfluenza viruses, influenza type A virus, and adenoviruses are the most important causes of viral pneumonia.

Interventions to control ARIs can be divided into four basic categories: immunization against specific pathogens, early diagnosis and treatment of disease, improvements in nutrition, and safer environments.The first two fall within the purview of the health system, whereas the last two fall under public health and require multisectoral involvement.The efficacy of Hib vaccine in preventing invasive disease (mainly meningitis, but also pneumonia), has been well documented in several studies in industrialized countries. The initial promise and consequent general perception was that Hib vaccine was to protect against meningitis, but in developing countries the vaccine is likely to have a greater effect on preventing LRIs.Hib vaccine was introduced into the routine infant immunization schedule in North America and Western Europe in the early 1990s. wider use of available vaccines will reduce ARI mortality among young children by half to two-thirds. The systematic application of simplified case management alone, the cost of which is low enough to be affordable by almost any developing country, will reduce ARI mortality by at least one-third. The urgent need is to translate this information into actual implementation.

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Science Policy Interface topics

       1.  Influenza is a moving target and a secret killer

2.   Prevention and treatment of influenza

3.   Addressing influenza in practice: who’s involved?

4.   Implementation of vaccination policies: success stories and hurdles

5.   Influenza preparedness: what can we learn from other virus outbreaks?

6.   Reaching out to people at risk

7.   Influenza prevention in developing countries: a global responsibility

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