Influenza 2018 Sessions
Influenza 2018 will attract a large group of scientists and researchers round the globe. We extend a warm welcome to the distinguished Nobel laureates, Researchers, members from Public Health, Clinicians, Professors, delegates from Associations, Societies, Pharmacy Industries, Biotech companies to attend International conference on Influenza during March 28-29, 2018 held at Orlando, USA hosted by Allied Academies through the theme “Scrutinizing the Advancing Research”, conference will explore the Influenza research and various ailments through invited plenary lectures, symposia, workshops, invited sessions, oral and poster sessions, B2B meetings.
This two-day Conference will address key issues concerning Influenza strains, pandemics, epidemics and its impacts in the broader context of Epidemiology, Pathology, Virology, Clinical microbiology and Immunology. The Conference focuses on moving from present knowledge to future scope and advancements. We cordially invite you to contribute through submission of your high quality research abstracts, posters and e-posters for presenting at the conference and help to configure the gathering.
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Influenza and Clinical Impact
Each year in the United States of America, influenza viruses are responsible for seasonal epidemics resulting in over 200,000 hospitalizations and 30,000–50,000 deaths. Accurate and early diagnosis of influenza viral infections are critical for rapid initiation of antiviral therapy to reduce influenza related morbidity and mortality both during seasonal epidemics and pandemics. Morbidity and mortality may be extremely severe, and young adults and children may be affected in large numbers. In the 21st century, the global spread of pandemic influenza is likely to be very rapid.
The host-pathogen interaction is defined as how microbes or viruses sustain themselves within host organisms on a molecular, cellular, organismal or population level. This term is most commonly used to refer to disease-causing microorganisms although they may not cause illness in all hosts. Microbes were thought to be primary aggressors that governed the host-pathogen interaction, resulting in disease. Host damage was the most relevant outcome of the host-pathogen interaction.
Influenza and Diagnostic Approaches
Early diagnosis of influenza viral infections are critical for rapid initiation of antiviral therapy to reduce influenza related morbidity and mortality both during seasonal epidemics and pandemics. Several different approaches are currently available for diagnosis of influenza infections in humans. These include viral isolation in cell culture, immunofluorescence assays, nucleic acid amplification tests, immune chromatography-based rapid diagnostic tests, etc. Newer diagnostic approaches are being developed to overcome the limitations associated with some of the conventional detection methods. The rapid flu swab test is a relatively fast and accurate method for diagnosing influenza.
Antiviral medications are a second line of protection framework against flu contamination. The antiviral medications have been affirmed for treatment of intense uncomplicated flu and for some preventive employments. Tamiflu (oseltamivir phosphate), Relenza (zanamivir) and Rapivab (peramivir) are the three FDA-affirmed flu antiviral medications suggested by CDC for use against as of late coursing flu infections. There is a great need for antiviral drugs with increased potency and decreased toxicity. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention has estimated that routine immunization of newborns prevents about 42,000 deaths and 20 million cases of disease each year, saving about $13.6 billion.
The neuraminidase inhibitors zanamivir and oseltamivir interfere with the release of progeny influenza virus from infected host cells, a process that prevents infection of new host cells and thereby halts the spread of infection in the respiratory tract. The neuraminidase inhibitors are effective against all neuraminidase subtypes and, therefore, against all strains of influenza, a key point in epidemic and pandemic preparedness and an important advantage over the adamantanes, which are effective only against sensitive strains of influenza A. These new drugs, if used properly, have great potential for diminishing the effects of influenza infection. The global neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility network (NISN), which coordinates the analysis of clinical isolates collected through the World Health Organization's surveillance network, found no influenza isolates with spontaneous resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors.
Influenza viruses are constantly evolving, in fact all influenza viruses undergo genetic changes over time. Hemagglutinin (HA) or Haemagglutinin (BE) is an antigenic glycoprotein found on the surface of the influenza viruses. It is responsible for binding the virus to the cell that is being infected. Understanding the relationship between antigenic structure and immune specificity, the receptor binding specificity in virus transmission, how the cleavage site controls pathogenicity, and how the fusion peptide causes membrane fusion for the entry of influenza virus into the host cell should provide information to find more effective ways to prevent and control influenza.
Influenza pandemics occur when a novel influenza virus emerges against which the vast majority of the world’s population has no immunity. Pandemics, on the other hand, happen once every few decades on average. They occur when a new subtype of influenza A arises that has either never circulated in the human population or has not circulated for a very long time (so that most people do not have immunity against the virus). The new subtype often causes serious illness and death, even among healthy individuals, and can spread easily through the human population. Yet despite the legacy of the 1918 “Spanish flu,” estimated to have killed at least 20 million people and the additional deaths, social disruption, and economic losses that resulted from pandemics in 1957 and 1968, the general public appears relatively unconcerned about the next “killer flu.” Depending on its severity, an influenza pandemic could result in 200,000 to 2 million deaths in the United States alone.
Influenza epidemics, also known as seasonal flu, occur annually and are the most common emerging infection among humans. These epidemics have major medical impacts, but they are generally not fatal except in certain groups such as the elderly. Emerging and re-emerging epidemic diseases pose an ongoing threat to global health security. The WHO’s twelth general programme of work sets the reduction of mortality, morbidity and societal disruption resulting from epidemics, through prevention, preparedness, response and recovery activities” as one of its five strategic imperatives.
Epidemiology deals with the incidence, distribution, and possible control of diseases and other factors relating to health. Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations. It is the cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare. Epidemiologists are concerned with study design, collection and statistical analysis of data, amend interpretation and dissemination of results. Evolutionary epidemiology spans a broader spectrum of host-parasite relationships. In tropical and sub-tropical regions, the disease usually occurs year-round, although seasonal peaks of increased activity may be observed.
Emerging infectious diseases have been increasing in incidence and are a key threat to wildlife and human health. Influenza naturally infects wild birds all around the world, although they usually do not become ill. The virus is very contagious, however, and it can become a problem when the virus is transmitted to domesticated birds, such as chickens, ducks, or turkeys, because domesticated poultry can succumb to illness and death from influenza. Since 1997, H5N1 infections in birds have spread, initially throughout Asia. Then as birds traveled along their migratory routes, H5N1 dispersed to Russia and Europe, and later to countries in the Middle East and on the African continent. Wild and domestic birds are recognized as the reservoirs of most influenza A viruses. Although the extent to which birds are involved in the emergence and global spread of novel, pandemic human strains remains debated, even the most recent pandemic strain, H1N1, contains several segments that most likely originated in birds. Thus, the dynamics of influenza infections among birds and mammals (including humans) are intimately linked.
Immunology of Influenza
The immune response to influenza A virus infection involves both B and T lymphocytes. The innate immune system triggers the body's "emergency response" to invaders such as infections. This rapid attack gives the body's adaptive immune system time to generate antibodies that specifically target the virus or bacterium. Flu vaccines train this adaptive immune system to attack specific viral strains.
Mathematical Modelling of Influenza
Mathematical models of viral infection have been successfully applied to a number of problems on the periphery of the annual public health problem that is influenza. In the laboratory, mathematical models have aided the development of efficient vaccine production techniques and improved the quantitative characterization of antiviral drug action. Mathematical models have also improved our understanding of the course of the disease within human and animal hosts. Because these models serve as a bridge between the microscopic scale (where virus interacts with cell) and the macroscopic scale (where the infection is manifested as a disease) they will inevitably be applied in the future to pressing public health questions such as the estimation of virulence and fitness for emerging strains, the spread of drug resistance and, more generally, the connections between viral genotypic information and clinical data.
There are four types of influenza viruses: A, B, C and D. Human influenza A and B viruses cause seasonal epidemics of disease almost every winter in the United States. The emergence of a new and very different influenza A virus to infect people can cause an influenza pandemic. Influenza type C infections generally cause a mild respiratory illness and are not thought to cause epidemics. Influenza D viruses primarily affect cattle and are not known to infect or cause illness in people. There are many other non-flu viruses that can result in influenza-like illness (ILI) that spread during flu season.
Genetics of Influenza
Influenza viruses are constantly evolving, in fact all influenza viruses undergo genetic changes over time. The information CDC collects from studying genetic changes (also known as “substitutions,” “variants” or “mutations”) in influenza viruses plays an important public health role by helping to determine whether existing vaccines and medical counter measures (e.g., antiviral drugs) will work against new influenza viruses, as well as helping to determine the potential for influenza viruses in animals to infect humans.
Influenza virus infections cause seasonal epidemics, affecting millions of people worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates ?300,000-500,000 deaths per year worldwide due to seasonal influenza and more than $26.8-87.1 billion/year in healthcare costs in the United States alone. Influenza, a segmented RNA virus achieves part of its ongoing virulence as a result of its strikingly high mutation rate, typically reported for Influenza A viruses of ~2 to 2.5 × 10?3mutations/site/year. Thus, is the intense effort and energy devoted to achieving effective long-term human and veterinarian vaccines. Currently, licensed influenza vaccines are either trivalent (three influenza strains) or quadrivalent (four influenza strains), as either an injectable inactivated whole virus (IIV) or a nasal spray live attenuated vaccine (LAIV). Although efficacious, standard traditional Influenza vaccine production is laborious, only moderately high-throughput and requires physical plants housing and/or incubating millions of specific-pathogen-free eggs. Research targeting alternate strategies has been prodigious, both at the preclinical and even Phase I clinical level, and has investigated approaches such as split virion, subunit, DNA, and viral vectored vaccines. Among the recently-explored, more novel and potentially-promising strategies has been recombinant particulate vaccines generally comprising virus-like particles or nanoparticles.
Influenza Clinical Case Studies
A case study, explores the biology of influenza, covering a range of topics including: the virus, infection, replication, mutation, immune responses, pathology, surveillance, diagnosis and treatment.
Influenza Related Organizations
A Symposium on Respiratory Viral Infections
Influenza is a highly communicable disease and typically has the most severe impact on children and the elderly. Influenza viruses are considered as a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. According to World Health Organization (WHO) annually influenza epidemics cause 5-15% of the population with upper respiratory tract infections which needs prompt and accurate diagnosis to effectively manage of influenza epidemics. Growing prevalence of influenza worldwide, government initiatives in awareness and diagnostic programs are driving the growth of influenza diagnostics market globally. For the purpose of study, the influenza diagnostics market is segmented on the basis of test type such as rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDT), RT-PCR, cell culture and others. In the base year 2016, rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDT) was the major revenue generating segment and is expected to show growth during forecast period; as it considered the gold standard in influenza diagnostics, faster onset of result and ease of use are influencing the growth of rapid influenza diagnostic tests (RIDT) market globally. Currently, North America held largest market share due to higher rate of in-vitro diagnostics availability and technologically advanced medical devices which are primarily driving the market growth in North America. Asia Pacific is expected to show highest growth rate during forecast period due to the rising healthcare awareness, higher number of targeted population and increasing demand for advanced diagnostic technologies, fuelling the market growth during forecast period.
The global influenza market reached $5.1 billion in 2015. This market is expected to increase from $5.4 billion in 2016 to $6.4 billion in 2021 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.6% for 2016-2021. Geographically, North America is the largest market for influenza vaccines capturing around 50% market share in 2016. Asia is the second largest market for influenza vaccines. Europe is the third largest market for influenza vaccines, followed by Latin America. Australasia accounted for least share of the influenza vaccines market in 2016.
According to market analysis, "Global Influenza Drugs and Vaccines Market - By Drugs (Zanamivir, Oseltamivir Phosphate, Peramivir), By Vaccine (Trivalent, Quadrivalent) - Analysis By Region, By Country: Opportunities and Forecast (2016-2021) - By Region (North America, Europe, APAC, ROW), By Country (U.S., Canada, U.K., Germany, France, China, India, Japan)", global market is projected to display a steady growth rate represented by a CAGR of 10.24% during 2017 - 2022, chiefly driven by increasing spending over various immunization programmes. In the influenza vaccines brand sales segment, Sanofi’s Fluzone holds the maximum share of the market being followed by Fluvirin/Flucelvax. GSK’s Fluarix/FluLaval accounts for the third highest share of the influenza vaccines market. Afluria/Fluvax and FluMist/Fluenz stands at the fourth and fifth position in the influenza vaccines market, while Flublok has captured least share of the influenza vaccines market. The global influenza vaccines market is anticipated to reach nearly US$ 5 Billion by 2022.
The influenza diagnostics market is observed to be highly competitive and comprises large number of players. However, the market is currently dominated by few players such as Alere, Becton, Dickinson and Company, Meridian Bioscience, Inc., Princeton BioMedtech corp., Quidel Corporation, Roche Diagnostics, SA Scientific, Inc., Sekisui Diagnostics, Thermo Fisher Scientific and other.
- Factors such as rising prevalence of influenza, upsurge funding by the government for diagnosis and treatment, growing demand for faster diagnosis and control of influenza are expected to drive the growth of influenza market during forecast period.
- Vendors in the market are focusing on innovation and technological advances in developing ideal and cost effective diagnostic devices, this would further assist the growth of influenza diagnostics market globally.
- However, some factors such as lower healthcare awareness in some countries may negatively impacting the growth of influenza diagnostics market globally.
- Anti Influenza Drugs
- Influenza Epidemiology
- Genetics of Influenza
- Influenza Viruses
- Influenza Vaccines
- Clinical Case Studies
- A Symposium on Respiratory Viral Infections
Orlando, USA, March 29, 2018
Allied Academies inviting the attendees who are in to research dealing with Zika virus from the fields of Microbiology, Virology, Pathology, Epidemiology, Immunology, NGO's and Clinicians. We would like to organize this session exclusively as a symposium apart from Influenza 2018, expecting huge number of research contributions towards this symposium on Zika Virus. It is an excellent opportunity to interact with the world class Scientists and it is the best platform to establish an international network.
Zika virus, first identified in 1947 in Uganda, had been thought to produce a rare and mild disease until it suddenly emerged in Brazil in 2015 and spread explosively through South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. The virus arrived in the United States in the summer of 2016. Zika virus is transmitted primarily by mosquitoes that thrive in tropical climates and urban areas. The virus can cause Zika virus disease. Zika virus can cause a serious birth defect known as microcephaly. Zika virus can also cause a neurologic condition in adults known as Guillain-Barre syndrome that results in muscle weakness or even paralysis in the worst cases. Two types of Aedes mosquitoes are capable of transmitting Zika virus – Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Aedes aegypti thought to be present only in 12 states in southern coastal areas of the United States, Aedes aegypti has now been found in about 30 states.
In Brazil, an explosive epidemic of a condition known as microcephaly has been correlated with the outbreak of Zika virus. Microcephaly can be caused by a number of genetic and environmental factors, including Down syndrome and fetal exposure to a variety of toxins. However, the number of microcephaly cases in Brazil since the Zika virus outbreak began is about twenty times higher than normally would be expected. It is estimated that approximately 500,000 cases of Zika virus infection have occurred in Brazil, although exact numbers are not known because of the difficulty in keeping track of the large number of cases and the fact that many infections go unnoticed. After Brazil, Columbia has been the most affected country with around 20,000 estimated cases. As of Oct. 26, 2016, there have been 139 laboratory confirmed cases acquired locally in Florida.
As of Oct. 26, 2016, Zika virus infection has been acquired by nearly 4,000 people in the United States as a result of travel to areas where Zika virus infected mosquitoes are present. Travel-associated cases have been reported in all states except Alaska. The greatest number of cases is in New York and Florida with around 1,600 cases between them, followed by California and Texas. Of these cases, 33 were sexually transmitted. Approximately 950 pregnant women have laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection, and there have been more than 20 cases of birth defects or pregnancy losses tied to Zika infection.
- Spread of Zika Virus
- Zika Virus Complications
- Treatment and Prevention